– LESSON 1 –
UNDERSTAND THE BASICS OF CANDLESTICK CHART

What is a Candlestick Chart?

A candlestick chart, also known as the Japanese Candlestick Chart, is a style of financial chart that is used to describe the price movements of an asset. It is used in financial markets, stocks, cryptocurrencies or any other market.

Let’s see how it looks:

Japanese Candlesticks Chart by Tradingview
Japanese Candlesticks Chart by Tradingview

Probably, you are wondering what are these green and red things going up and down? It’s candlesticks (also known as Japanese Candlesticks). Don’t worry, you will learn how to read the charts as an experienced trader.

Now, let me explain what information is shown by a chart.

The price movement of an asset is represented on any chart from left to right (from past to present).
To make things easier, I will show you a chart drawn by me.

Here is the chart:

Example of how to read the chart information
Example of how to read the chart information

At the bottom of the chart, we have the TIMEFRAME and at the right side of the chart, we have the PRICE level.

Now, let’s see what the price was on the 7th of June.

Example of how to check the price for any given moment in the past
Example of how to check the price for any given moment in the past

On 7th of June, the price was $8 USD.

Let’s take another example just to be sure you understand it clearly.

What was the price on the 12th of June?

Example of how to check the price on June 12
Example of how to check the price on June 12

If you answered $5, then you were right!

But as you have seen on the real candlestick chart, the price isn’t just a line. Price is represented by using candlesticks.

Earlier, I’ve asked you what the price of the asset was on the 12th of June.
Yes, it was $5 but this was the average price. The price can’t stay at $5 all day long. It’s moving continuously.

We need to obtain more information …

So, the price is moving up and down every second, depending on supply and demand, but not only that. The price has a range every day.

Let’s assume that on the 12th of June, the price varied from $4 to $7, meaning that we had a LOW of $4 and a HIGH of $7.

Using a linear chart, you won’t be able to see such information. So we need the candlestick chart for such information.

Because we are using the daily timeframe (D), every candlestick on the chart shows you the OPENING and CLOSING price for each given day. Also, it shows you the LOWEST and HIGHEST price of that day.

Most of the traders use candlestick charts.

So let me show you the price on 12th of June represented with a candlestick.

Candlestick Example
Candlestick Example

Now, let’s have a look ‘inside’ of a candlestick using the daily timeframe.

You will understand better how a candlestick takes shape .

See the example bellow:

Example 1: Price action during one day
Example 1: Price action during the day

When a new day starts (0:00 AM), a new candlestick will OPEN at X price. During the day, the price goes up and down setting a LOW and a HIGH and at the end of the day (23:59 PM), the candlestick CLOSES at Y price.

Example 2: Candlestick formation
Example 2: Candlestick formation

Having all the information above, we can now see how a candle is formed.

See the example below:

Example 3: Candlestick formation
Example 3: Candlestick formation

Now it’s clear that a candlestick represents the price movement on a specific period of time (timeframe). You will get more familiarized with this topic later on when we’ll talk about candlesticks in details.

Candlesticks can be displayed on the charts in different time frames, from a monthly and daily all the way down to less than a minute of data.

Examples of time frames:
  • M – Monthly
  • W – Weekly
  • D – Daily
  • 4h – 4 hours
  • 1h – 1 hour
  • 30m – 30 minutes
  • 15m – 15 minutes
  • 5m – 5 minutes

You can switch between time frames at anytime. All trading platforms give you this feature. Just click on the specific time frame you want to be displayed.

Here is how it looks on a trading platform:

timeframes
Example: Timeframes

Remember, you have the option of switching between timeframes at any moment just by one click.

Now, let’s see the differences between linear charts and candlestick charts.

This time we are using the 1 hour time frame (1h). That means we can see the price range of every past hour (including the Opening and the Closing price along with the Lowest and the Highest price of every given hour in the past).

The linear chart looks like this:

Linear Chart Example - (1h)
Linear Chart Example – (1h)

The candlestick chart looks like this:

Candlesticks Chart Example - (1h)
Candlesticks Chart Example – (1h)

When using the 1h timeframe it means that every candle on the chart represents the price range of every hour.

Example:

At 0:00 AM the price opens a new candle which closes at 1:00 AM. Right after it closes, a new candle is opened from 1:00 AM to 2:00 AM. Then another candle is formed from 2:00 AM to 3:00 AM, and so on.

So, when using the 1h timeframe, on every given hour a candlestick is opened and closed. This is how the chart is formed by candlesticks.

See the differences?

On the linear chart, you cannot see the price range on a specific timeframe. It only shows the average price.

On the other hand, the candlestick chart shows a lot more information about price action at a specific time in a the past.

Speaking about price action, let me show you the candlestick chart again, but this time I will indicate the price action using black lines. As we already know, we are looking from left to right (past to present).

Let’s look at the chart:

Price action on a candlestick chart (1h)
Price action on a candlestick chart (1h)

See what I mean?

I’m sure you have understood the whole picture. The price came from left to right, showing ups and downs.

Don’t worry if something is unclear, because I will explain everything in details when going further with this trading lessons.

When trading, all the information we have is from the past (left side). Based on this information, we are trying to predict the next move of the market in order to make profit. This ‘prediction’ is made by Technical Analysis (TA).

But trading isn’t about prediction, it’s about reaction. So what I am trying to say is that we don’t open trades based on our prediction but we open trades if the market reacts to our prediction.

Now, let’s talk about price action…

Why does it go up and down?

As I have told you earlier, the price is moving because of supply and demand, but not just because of that. Markets are also driven by emotions, greed, and fear.

Let me give you a short general example:

Imagine you want to sell a product. As a seller, you want to receive as much money as possible, but the buyers want to pay as little as possible. So, the selling price is always higher than the price offered by the buyers.

If five people sell the same product and they ask for $100, the following scenarios can happen:

1. Lack of demand:

Let’s say we have only one person interested in buying the product for $95. Rest assured that one in five sellers will sell the product for $95, lowering the price of the product from $100 to $95. Now the market price is $95.

2. High demand:

Let’s assume that many people are interested in buying the product. The sellers, seeing high demand in the market, start asking for a higher price. They won’t sell the product for $100 anymore so the price starts to increase.

In conclusion, every time there is an imbalance between buyers and sellers (supply and demand) the price will increase or will decrease.

I have used this example so you can get an idea of what influences the price to go up and down. At the same time, there are fundamental causes for which the price varies, like the economy, the news, and so on …

We will focus on how to trade by using Technical Analysis (TA), not Fundamental Analysis (FA).
We will be discussing more when we get to the next lessons…

Before ending this lesson I want to show you a chart and to highlight all the information given by it.

Let see the whole picture:

Candlestick Chart Information
Example: Candlestick Chart Information
  1. Name of the asset that we want to trade.
  2. Selected timeframe.
  3. Last candlestick info: Open, High, Low, Close.
  4. Current price level.
  5. Price scale
  6. Time & Date

Congratulations, now you know how to read candlestick charts.

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>>> GO TO LESSON 2

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